Hierarchy in Declarative Business Process Models

This experiment is examining hierarchy in declarative business process models. In particular, we elaborated hierarchical declarative business process models and semantically-equivalent declarative business process models without hierarchy. Participating subjects had then to answer questions about particular aspects of the models. To analyse the answers, we use questionnaires and think-aloud technique.


The experiment makes use of repeated measurement, hence we defined two experimental groups: group 1 received the flat model first (see questionnaire here), group 2 started with the hierarchical model (see questionnaire here) .

To support subjects during the experiment and to avoid that constraints were misunderstood, subjects received this handout and this introduction before the experiment, and this sheet with constraints during the experiment.


  • S. Zugal, P. Soffer, C. Haisjackl, J. Pinggera, M. Reichert and B. Weber: Investigating expressiveness and understandability of hierarchy in declarative business process models. Software & Systems Modeling 14(3):1081–1103, 2015.
  • C. Haisjackl, S. Zugal, P. Soffer, I. Hadar, M. Reichert, J. Pinggera and B. Weber: Making Sense of Declarative Process Models: Common Strategies and Typical Pitfalls. In: Proc. BPMDS ’13, pp. 2–17, 2013.
  • C. Haisjackl, I. Barba, S. Zugal, P. Soffer, I. Hadar, M. Reichert, J. Pinggera and B. Weber: Understanding Declare models: strategies, pitfalls, empirical results. Software & Systems Modeling 15(2):325–352, 2016.